The building of the province zemstvo was erected in 1903-1908 on the project of V. Krichevsky with the using of projects of E. Shirshov and M. Nikolaev. This building became the standard of the Ukrainian architectural style. The coats of arms of province towns decorate the building and make it solemn. Two high towers with little loop-holes remind us of Poltava-fortress of 12-13th century. The students of Mirgorodsky ceramics school took part in its decoration. The wellknown artists of M. Samokush and Vasilkovskiy perfomed the ornament paintings, frisians, pictures.

The Local Lore in this building was founded by the initiative of the soil scientist and professor V. Dokuchaev. In 1906 the native of the Poltava province K. Skerzhinskay (habitants of Switzerland) presented a large gift to the museum: more than 20 thousand of exhibits and a scientific library of 4 thousand volumes.
In the years of German occupation in 1943 the museum was ransacked and was burned. The cabinets of Gogol, Kotlyarevsky, Mirny, Teslenko, documents and relics of the Poltava battle were destroyed. There were 118 thouŽsand of exhibits, after war they have become 37 thousand.

The modern exposition consists of several departments: archaeology, history, ethnography, the history of religion and the folk art. Our museum is one of the oldest and the largest museums of Ukraine.